Noen ord og forklaringer filosofisk sett

-Until philosophers are kings, or the kings and princes of this world have the spirit and power of philosophy, and political greatness and wisdom meet in one, and those commoner natures who pursue either to the exclusion of the other are compelled to stand aside, cities will never have rest from their evils—no, nor the human race, as I believe—and then only will our State have a possibility of life and behold the light of day.”



Top-down logic. This means starting from a general statement to reach a conclusion that is logical and sound. Inductive reasoning is the reverse of deductive reasoning, in which conclusions are reached from the examination of specific examples.


The view that natural laws determine facts and events, that human choices and events are caused by some force or law.


In philosophy, the idea that reality comprises two substances or principles, which are either mental or material. Monism, on the other hand, is the belief that there is one basic principle or substance that comprises reality, while pluralism is the belief that there are several substances or principles upon which reality is founded. In theology, it is the belief that there are two forces such as good and evil, and that people have two parts, soul and body.


Viewing things exclusively from your own perspective and vantage point and not seeing things from others’ perspectives; the belief that your own best interest is the highest good. In ethics, egoism means that morality is achieved through self-interest. In psychology, egocentrism is a preoccupation with your inner world.


The idea that what is right and wrong depends on the situation and there are no absolute ethics. In this system, the views and values of the individual determine what is ethical, based upon the situations of culture and history. Ethical relativism has been debated since the time of the earliest Greek philosophers.

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